Schwartz v. City of New York
Description: An Orthodox Jewish psychotherapist filed a federal lawsuit against the city of New York for violating his freedom of speech and infringing on his religious faith and that of his patients. Dr. Dovid Schwartz, a licensed psychotherapist and member of the Chabad Lubavitch Orthodox Jewish Community in Brooklyn, is challenging the city’s ordinance that prohibits certain patient-counselor conversations that the New York City Council disfavors. The counseling censorship law extends to the counseling of willing adult patients and threatens increasing fines of $1,000, $5,000, or $10,000 for first, second, and subsequent violations.
NYC pays $100,000 for censoring psychotherapist’s private conversations with patients
In the face of the lawsuit, the city backtracked on its previous legislation and, last September, voted to repeal the counseling ban. In light of the repeal and this settlement, Schwartz and his attorneys are dismissing their lawsuit in Schwartz v. City of New York.
“All New Yorkers and all Americans deserve the right to private conversations, free from government control,” said ADF Senior Counsel Roger Brooks. “New York City directly violated our client’s freedom of speech by trying to regulate and censor private sessions between an adult and his therapist. While the city eventually saw the writing on the wall and reversed course, it needlessly cost the taxpayers of New York tens of thousands of dollars for enacting its unconstitutional policy in the first place, because Dr. Schwartz was forced to go to court to protect his rights. Other cities should not repeat the same error. We’re grateful that New York City is no longer threatening to censor Dr. Schwartz’s conversations and impose government-approved orthodoxy on him or his patients.”
In 2018, the city council adopted a law making it illegal for any person to provide services for a fee that “seek to change a person’s sexual orientation or seek to change a person’s gender identity to conform to the sex of such individual that was recorded at birth.” Notably, the law only prohibited counsel in one direction—assisting a patient who desires to reduce same-sex attraction or achieve comfort with their biological sex. The law threatened fines of up to $10,000 for first, second, and subsequent violations. By contrast, counseling that steers a patient towards a gender identity different than his or her physical body was permitted.
Over the course of his over 50 years of general practice, Schwartz has regularly encountered and served patients who want his help overcoming same-sex attraction. Because of their religious beliefs and personal life goals, clients who seek his counsel often desire to experience opposite-sex attraction so they can marry, form a natural family, and live consistently with their Orthodox Jewish faith. A number of patients have pursued and achieved those goals with the aid of his psychotherapeutic services. Schwartz uses no techniques in working with his patients other than listening and talking—yet the 2018 law claimed to forbid even that.
Nelson, Madden, Black LLP attorney Barry Black, one of nearly 3,100 private attorneys allied with ADF, served as co-counsel in the case, Schwartz v. City of New York, in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York.
- Pronunciation guide: Dovid (Duh-VEED’)
Alliance Defending Freedom is an alliance-building, non-profit legal organization that advocates for the right of people to freely live out their faith.
Additional resources: Schwartz v. City of New York
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Roger G. Brooks serves as senior counsel with Alliance Defending Freedom, where he is a key member of the Center for Conscience Initiatives. Brooks focuses his efforts on protecting freedom of speech, free exercise of religion, student privacy, and parental rights. Prior to joining ADF in 2018, Brooks worked with the New York law firm of Cravath, Swaine & Moore for 25 years, 19 of those as a partner in the litigation department. Brooks received an A.B. from Princeton University, followed by a master’s degree in history and a Juris Doctor from the University of Virginia. After law school, Brooks clerked with the Hon. John D. Butzner, Jr., of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit. He received his Master of Divinity from Regent College Seminary in Vancouver, British Columbia. Brooks served on the board of ADF (2012-2014) and on the board of the Christian Legal Society (2002-2011). He is a member of the state bars of New York and North Carolina.